Prediction of Red Wine Quality

In Kaggle platform, there is an example dataset about

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import pandas as pd
 
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.ensemble import ExtraTreesClassifier
from sklearn.svm import SVC
from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
 
# Read dataset
wine = pd.read_csv('~/Downloads/winequality-red.csv', sep = ';')
attrs = wine.drop(['quality'], axis = 1)
header = list(attrs)
attrs = attrs.values
 
# Use scaler to normalize data
scaler = StandardScaler()
scaled_attrs = scaler.fit_transform(attrs)
 
quality = wine['quality'].values
 
# SVM classifier
svr = SVC(kernel = 'rbf', max_iter = -1)
svr.fit(attrs, quality)
 
# Randomized decison trees classifier
dt = ExtraTreesClassifier()
dt.fit(attrs, quality)
 
ls = list(zip(dt.feature_importances_, header))
ls.sort(key = lambda x: x[1])
for importance, name in ls:
    print(name, importance)
 
print('\n\n')
 
# Cross validation on this two classifiers
for reg in [svr, dt]:
    scores = cross_val_score(reg, attrs, quality, scoring = 'neg_mean_squared_error', cv = 10)
    rmse = -scores
    print(reg)
    print(rmse.mean(), rmse.std())
    print('\n')

The results reported by snippet above:

Looks the most important feature to predict quality of red wine is ‘alcohol’. Intuitively, right?

Use PCA (Principal Component Analysis) to blur color image

I wrote an example of blurring color picture by using PCA from scikit-learn:

But it reports

The correct solution is transforming image to 2 dimensions shape, and inverse transform it after PCA:

It works very well now. Let’s see the original image and blurring image:



Original Image



Blurring Image

Do tf.random_crop() operation on GPU

When I run code like:

it reports:

Looks operation tf.random_crop() doen’t have CUDA kernel implementation. Therefore I need to write it myself. The solution is surprisingly simple: write a function to do random_crop on one image by using tf.random_uniform() and tf.slice(), and then use tf.map_fn() to apply it on multi-images.

It can run on GPU now.

Regularization loss in ‘slim’ library of Tensorflow

My python code using slim library to train classification model in Tensorflow:

It works fine. However, no matter what value the ‘weight_decay’ is, the training accuracy of the model could reach higher than 90% easily. It seems ‘weight_decay’ just doesn’t work.
In order to find out the reason, I reviewed the code of Tensorflow for ‘tf.losses.sparse_softmax_cross_entropy()’:

The ‘losses.sparse_softmax_cross_entropy()’ simply call ‘tf.nn.sparse_softmax_cross_entropy()’. Then let’s look into the implementation of ‘compute_weighted_loss()’:

The losses of ‘losses.sparse_softmax_cross_entropy()’ will be added into collection of ‘GraphKeys.LOSSES’. Then where dose the weight of parameters go ? Will they be added into same collection ? Let’s check. All the layer written by library of ‘tf.layers’ or ‘tf.contrib.slim’ are inherited from ‘class Layer’ and will call ‘add_loss()’ when this layer call ‘add_variable()’. Let’s check ‘add_loss()’ of base class ‘Layer’:

It’s weird. The loss from weight of variable has not been added into ‘GraphKeys.LOSSES’, but ‘GraphKeys.REGULARIZATION_LOSSES’. Then how could we get all the losses at training stage ? After grep ‘REGULARIZATION_LOSSES’ in whole codes of Tensorflow, it comes up with the ‘get_total_loss()’:

That is the secret of losses in ‘tf.layers’ and ‘tf.contrib.slim’: we should use ‘get_total_loss()’ to fetch model loss and regularization loss together!
After changing my code:

The ‘weight_decay’ works well now (which means training accuracy could not reach high value easily)

Using multi-GPUs for training in distributed environment of Tensorflow

I am trying to write code for training on multi-GPUs. The code is mainly from the example of ‘Distributed Tensorflow‘. I have changed the code slightly for runing on GPU:

But after launch the script below:

it reports:

Seems one MonitoredTrainingSession will occupy all the memory of GPUs. After search on google, I finally get a solution: ‘CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES’.
Firstly, change ‘replica_device_setter’:

and then use this shell script to launch training processes:

The ‘ps’ will only use GPU0, ‘worker0’ will only use GPU1, ‘worker1’ will only use GPU2 etc.

Reinforcement Learning example for tree search

I have been learning Reinforcement Learning for about two weeks. Although haven’t go through all the course of Arthur Juliani, I had been able to write a small example of Q-learning now.
This example is about using DNN for Q-value table to solve a path-finding-problem. Actually, the path is more looks like a tree:




The start point is ‘0’, and the destination (or ‘goal’) is ’12’.

The code framework of my example is mainly from Manuel Amunategui’s tutorial but replacing Q-value table with a one-layer-neural-network.

The rewards curve in training steps:



And this example will finally report:

which is the correct answer.

Problems and solutions about building Tensorflow-1.8 with TensorRT 4.0

Problem:
When compiling Tensorflow-1.8 with CUDA-9.2, it reports:

Solution:
Add ‘/usr/local/cuda-9.2/lib64’ into ‘/etc/ld.so.conf’ and run ‘sudo ldconfig’ to make it works.

Problem:
When compiling Tensorflow-1.8, it reports:

Solution:
In ‘.tf_configure.bazelrc’ file, use real python location instead of soft link:

Problem:
When running TensorRT, it reports:

Solution:
Run TensorRT with LD_LIBRARY_PATH:

Testing performance of Tensorflow’s fixed-point-quantization on x86_64 cpu

Google has published their quantization method on this paper. It use int8 to run feed-forward but float32 for back-propagation, since back-propagation need more accurate to accumulate gradients. I got a question right after reading the paper: why all the performance test works are on platform of mobile-phone (ARM architecture)? The quantization consequences of model in google’s method doesn’t only need addition and multiplication of int8 numbers, but also bit-shift operations. The AVX instruments set in Intel x86_64 architecture could accelerate MAC (Multiplication, Addition and aCcumulation), but couldn’t boost bit-shift operations.

To verify my suspicion, I wrote a model with ResNet-50 (float32) to classify CIFAR-100 dataset. After running a few epochs, I evaluate the speed of inference by using my ‘eval.py’. The result is:

Then, I follow these steps to add tf.contrib.quantize.create_training_graph() and tf.contrib.quantize.create_eval_graph() into my code. This time, the speed of inference is:

A little bit of disappointment. Using quantized (int8) version of model could not accelerate processing speed of x86 CPU. May be we need to find other more powerful quantization algorithm.

Appendix:

Hard training works in deep learning

This week, I was trying to train two deep-learning models. They are different from my previous training job: they are really hard to converge to a small ‘loss’.

The first model is about bird image classification. Previously we wrote a modified Resnet-50 model by using MXNet and could use it to reach 78% evaluation-accuracy. But after we rewrote the same model by using Tensorflow, it could only reach 50% evaluation-accuracy, which seems very weird. The first thing that in my mind is that it’s a regularization problem, so I randomly pad/crop and rotate the training images:

By data augmentation, the evaluation accuracy rise to about 60%, but still far from the result of MXNet.
Then I change the optimizer from AdamOptimizer to GradientDescentOptimizer, since my colleague tell me the AdamOptimizer is too powerful that it tends to cause overfit. And I also add ‘weight_decay’ for my Resnet-50 model. This time, the evaluation accuracy shrived to 76%. The affection of ‘weight_decay’ is significantly positive.

The second model is about object detection. We just use the example of Tensorflow’s model library. It includes many cutting-edge models to implement object detection. I just want to try SSD(Single Shot Detection) on MobileNetV2:

The loss is rapidly reducing from hundreds to twelve, but stay at eleven for a very long time. The loss looks like will stay here forever. Then I begin to adjust hyper-parameters. After testing several learning rates and optimizers, the results doesn’t change at all.
Eventually, I noticed that the loss doesn’t stay forever, it WILL REDUCE AT LAST. For some tasks such as classification, its loss will converge significantly. But for other tasks such as object detection, its loss will shrink at extremely slow speed. Use AdamOptimizer and small learning rate is a better choice for this type of task.

To check abnormal loss value when training a new model

Yesterday I wrote a Tensorflow program to train CIFAR100 dataset with Resnet-50 model. But when the training begin, I saw the ‘loss’ of classification is abnormally big and didn’t reduce at all:

Firstly, I thought the code for processing dataset may be wrong. But after print out the data in console, the loading input data seems all right. Then I print all the value of tensors right after initialization of model. And these value seems correct either.
Without other choices, I began to check the initializer in Tensorflow code:

If the loss is too big, maybe I could decrease the initial value of tensors in model? Then I change ‘mean’ from ‘0’ to ‘0.1’ for ‘slim.conv2d’:

But the loss seems more crazy:

I have to change ‘mean’ and ‘stddev’ again:

This time, the loss seems correct now.

This is the first time I saw that initialized value could make the training accuracy so different.