Books I read in year 2015

Illustrated Network Hardware Famous Cases for DataCenter Mysql Internal: Innodb Engine The Martian Antifragile

The first book is about network hardware, like router, switcher. As a coder, I usually use servers on cloud, therefore haven’t see the real high performance routers (I have sought bare server, 1Gb switcher). This book open my eyes.

The second book is about how to build Datacenter. It’s really a work for architecture, not IT guys.

About two years ago, I worked with Mysql team in my company as a kernel developer. We have used PCIE-card of NAND and flashcache as our solution for Mysql to process hight throughput pressure. But util this year, I have read over the architecture of InnoDB Engine which is the most powerful and effective engine in Mysql. Actually, it’s not so difficult to have a overview of the InnoDB Engine in a book. But, it is still very hard to understand the code of it 🙂

I haven’t go to cinema to watch “The Martian” because I have read it in my Kindle on my commute everyday. It is really a sci-fi story for Geeks who like do research on Computer,Chemistry,Physics,etc. The only question I want to ask the author is:” How could you invent so much troubles on Mars to torture Mark Watney?”

Performance test for unikernels (Rumpkernel and OSv)

Unikernels are specialised, single-address-space machine images constructed by using library operating systems. The concept of Unikernel is very old (Since 1980s in embeded system), but become more and more popular in this cloud computing age for its portability and security.
In recent days, I tested two famous unikernel production: Rumpkernel and OSv by running redis in them.

1. Run redis in Rumpkernel (KVM)
Firstly, build rumpkernel and its environment as “”, then

2. Run redis in OSv (KVM)
Firsty, build OSv by the tutorial of “”, and the virbr0 network (as qemu/kvm usually do), then

3. Run redis on host (centos 7 on bare hardware)

4. Use benchmark tool to test it
I choose memtier_benchmark as the benchmark tool.

5. The test result

Request per second

Latency (unit for Y axle: micro second)

Looks the performance of OSv is better than Rumpkernel. But still, they all much slower than running on bare hardware. The bottle-neck in this test case is network, so may be we should find a way to bypass tap or bridge.

How to disable the creation of the rescue initramfs on CentOS 7

I was trying to install new linux kernel (4.4-rc5) in my CentOS 7 server. But when I run “sudo make install” it report

The initramfs-0-rescue-XXX file occupied too much space in boot device. Then I found this article. But after adding dracut_rescue_image=”no” into /etc/dracut.conf, the problem was still exist.
Finally, I use

Therefore, the worked configuration item for dracut is in /usr/lib/dracut/dracut.conf.d/02-rescue.conf instead of /etc/dracut.conf on centos 7. The final solution is

“kmem_cache_create: duplicate cache XXX”

In my kernel module, firstly I wrote:

In centos 7, this module works fine, but after port to centos 6, this kernel module reports:

The key to this problme is in the implementation of kmem_cache_create() in 2.6.32 linux kernel (for centos 6):

After creating a new pool, it only point to ‘name’, not strdup() a new one. But the ‘name’ in my kernel module is a temporary variable (in stack), so it considers the name is “duplicated”.
The correct code should like:

But why the old kernel module did not report error in centos 7? Because in centos 7 the default memory allocator is SLUB, and in centos 6 it is SLAB. They have totally different implementation.

“Cache flush bypassed!” from fio

fio is a effective tool to test IO-performance of a block device (also file system).

Today, my colleague tell me fio has report “Cache flush bypassed!” which means all IO have bypass the device cache. But I can’t agree because the cache of a RAID card usually could only be change by specific tool (such as MegaCLi), but not a test tool.

By review the code of fio:

and the implementation for blockdev_invalidate_cache() is:

Therefore, the “Cache flush bypassed!” is not mean all IO will bypass the buffer of device, but actually means: “fio can’t flush the cache of device, so let’s ignore it”.
If you want to disable the DRAM cache on the RAID card, the correct way is set cache policy of RAID card to “Write Through”: